Yellow fever, the returning epidemic – PAHO/WHO | Pan American Health Organization
Yellow fever, a potentially lethal, mosquito-transmitted ailment with a mortality rate of 60% in its severe form, is on the cusp of a resurgence. Experts issue a dire caution, asserting that the United States is ill-prepared to confront the looming threat advancing from the tropics, accompanied by other diseases like malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis.
As reported by The New York Post, despite the existence of a viable vaccine against yellow fever, its availability is limited, and certain individuals may experience adverse reactions to the inoculation.
“In the current landscape, the vast majority of the U.S. population remains unvaccinated for yellow fever, with no vaccine reserves stockpiled within the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile,” detailed the authors of a publication featured in The New England Journal of Medicine.
The authors go on to expound that in the event of a substantial epidemic, yellow fever could spread rapidly through unimmunized communities across the American South. They express skepticism regarding the readiness of the U.S. government to procure and distribute vaccines promptly, even if public demand were to surge. They harken back to the 1800s when yellow fever, also colloquially known as “yellow jack,” unleashed devastation upon the southern coastal cities of the U.S. and those lining the Mississippi River.
Researchers posit that climate fluctuations and economic factors exert a profound influence on the propagation of yellow fever and other mosquito-borne maladies. Communities like Galveston, Corpus Christi, and Houston in Texas, Mobile, Alabama, New Orleans, Miami, and Tampa in Florida face threats. Dr. Peter Hotez, the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, emphasizes that low-income neighborhoods, replete with discarded tires collecting stagnant water, inadvertently foster mosquito breeding grounds.
Mosquitoes thrive in warm temperatures, yet they flounder in the face of droughts, notes Dawn Wesson, a specialist in mosquito-borne diseases and an assistant professor at Tulane University School of Public Health. She adds, “Climate changes leading to severe drought can suppress mosquito populations, but the conjunction of hot weather and rain spells a perfect storm for these vectors.”
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends vaccination for individuals aged nine months and older residing in or traveling to regions susceptible to yellow fever virus transmission.
The Cleveland Clinic reports that this ailment claims 30,000 lives annually, predominantly within Africa. Symptoms range from mild, flu-like manifestations featuring aches and fever to severe outcomes such as jaundice, bleeding, liver and kidney failure, culminating in death.
To shield oneself from yellow fever, don protective attire and employ insect repellents to dissuade mosquito encounters. If your journey leads you to regions where yellow fever is prevalent, obtaining the vaccine is highly recommended. Wesson underscores the importance of eliminating potential mosquito larval habitats, such as plant saucers and other sources of stagnant water.
“We firmly believe that yellow fever should be accorded high priority within our national pandemic preparedness initiatives, considering that the conditions are now ripe for ‘yellow jack’ to stage a return, afflicting countless residents in southern U.S. cities,” caution the authors of this report.
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